Yakovleva Lyudmila V.  -  D. Sc. (Biology), Associate Professor, Head of the Department of biotechnology, aquaculture, soil science and land management, Astrakhan State University named by V.N. Tatischev, Russia, 414000, Astrakhan, Shaumyana Str., 1,

Gulin Alexander V.  -  Ph. D. (Agriculture), Director, All-Russian Research Institute of irrigated vegetable and melon growing – branch of the FSBSI "Caspian Agrarian Federal Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences", 16 Lyubicha Str., Kamyzyak, Astrakhan region, 416341, Russian Federation,

Sorokin Andrey P.  -  Ph. D. (Biology), Associate Professor, Astrakhan State University, 1 Shaumyana Str., Astrakhan, 414000, Russian Federation,

Maslova Ekaterina A.  -  Assistant, Astrakhan State University, 1 Shaumyana Str., Astrakhan, 414000, Russian Federation,

In modern economic conditions, the preservation and rational use of agrocenoses is of strategic importance. Improving land use, water use and government regulation contributes to the rational and environmental management of agriculture, increasing its efficiency and increasing the volume of agricultural production. Currently, agriculture is faced with such a problem as soil degradation. Soil degradation due to salinity, alkalinity, or their combined effect is one of the most important factors in limiting the optimal use of land resources. The article presents the results of the studying the salt state of soils in agrocenoses of the Astrakhan region. The soil cover of the study area is represented by alluvial soddy-desertifying calcareous soils on loose alluvial deposits. Analysis of the water extract shows that the pH value is 7.3–7.9, which corresponds to a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction of the medium, therefore, the chemistry of the studied soils corresponds to the neutral type. The amount of dense residue does not exceed 0.20 %, therefore the soils are not non-saline, the amount of salts slightly increases with depth, according to the degree of salinity, taking into account the toxicity of salts in the 0–20 cm layer, it is non-saline, 40 cm is non-saline, 100 cm is slightly saline. The type of salinity is defined as sulfate. The salts are dominated by sulfate and chloride ions.

Key words: soil fertility, toxic salts, land degradation, salinization, agricultural land, cationic-anionic composition of salts